Tek Team

CAMERA OPERATORS TRAINING

Tek Team Training.jpg

WELCOME TO THE TEAM
Here is what you will learn with this training:

  • Training Resources
  • Your Commitment
  • Overview of the Camera and Gear
  • Skill 1: Composition (Framing a great shot)
  • Skill 2: Exposure (Mastering the image)
  • Skill 3: Focus (Developing your eye for sharpness)
  • Skill 4: Depth of Field (Using DOF to create Bokeh)
  • Skill 5: Movement (Adding motion to your shots)
  • Video Direction (Understanding the coaching language)

TRAINING RESOURCES
As a part of your training, please complete the following:

  • Go through this online training guide.
  • Practice your skills at one of our rehearsals.
  • Visit your Planning Center account.

Additional Resources:

YOUR COMMITMENT
What is the time commitment for Camera Ops?

  • Arrive promptly on Sunday at 8:00am to meet with the Video Director.

  • Full Service Rehearsal from 8:20-9:15am.

  • Both Services at 9:30 and 11:00am. Finished up around 12:30pm.

  • Your schedule will be posted on Planning Center and you can customize it using the Block Out Dates and Scheduling Preferences which allows you to control how many Sundays a month you are scheduled.

  • You can reach Daybreak's scheduling administrator here.

How should I dress?

  • Please wear all black. Dark blue jeans are fine.

  • No shorts or flip-flops please.

  • Black Daybreak apparel is encouraged.

What are some of the standards?

  • Please, no cell phone use while operating cameras.
  • Avoid chewing gum.
  • No food or drinks while operating cameras.
  • We value promptness and honor your time.

OVERVIEW OF THE GEAR
Introducing your camera, the PANASONIC UX180.

Panasonic 2.jpg

The Panasonic UX180 is a 4K professional camera. It has a 24mm wide angle lens with 20x zoom. For IMAG, the camera is run in Ultra High Def mode (3840 x 2160 pixels).

Turning the camera on.
Locate the off/on button on the right side of the camera. Push the white button next to the red button and slide it down to the on position. Do not push the red button.

Open the LCD monitor.
The LCD is hidden on the left-top side of the camera. Pull it out and then rotate it to the locking position. Cameras on tripods have an external monitor with a larger viewing area. Handheld cameras use the built-in LCD.

The Marshall LCD Display.

Marshall Monitor.jpg

Turn on the monitor.
Turn on the monitor using the switch on the lower left. The monitor auto-senses the inputs. If no signal, check that the SDI cable is connected properly.

The VariZoom Controller

Vari-Zoom.jpg

Zoom Control.
Zoom is the control that you will use the most. Use the paddle at the bottom to zoom in and out.

Focus Control.
Set the Focus switch to M for manual. Never use auto focus. Use the left wheel to adjust focus.

Iris Control.
Set the Iris switch to M for manual. Never use auto iris. Use the top wheel to adjust the iris.

The Clear-Com Beltpack

Clear-Com 1.jpg

Communications.
The beltpack is automatically turned on. Generally, you are listening to the Video Director (VD) and do not need to use the talk button. Use the volume control to adjust the headset volume. Press and hold the Talk button to talk to the VD. Pressing the Talk button lightly will cause it to stay on. Avoid leaving it on. If you do not have your headset on, be sure to turn the volume down.

SKILL 1: COMPOSITION
Capturing a well-framed image.

Headroom.
Headroom is the term that describes the subject's head in relationship to the top of the framed shot. Generally, you maintain a gap between the top of the screen and the top of a person's head. The exceptions are an extreme close up (CU) or a wide shot. Too much headroom can make the subject feel diminished and sunken into the shot. Too little headroom and an awkwardness is created as the subject feels "crunched" in the frame. If the Director calls for less headroom, tilt the camera down. If the Director calls for more headroom, tilt the camera up.

Too Much Headroom.jpg
Too Much Headroom.jpg
Good Headroom.jpg

Looking Room.
One goal of good composition is to allow for your subject to "look" with room in the frame for their gaze. If they are facing to the right, their head must be more on the left side of the screen. This will give you a buffer in case the subject moves more quickly in that direction. Pan as you follow a subject to accommodate Looking Room.

Not Enough LR.jpg
Too Much LR.jpg
Good LR.jpg

Tell A Story.
Remember that you are helping to tell a story. Your composition impacts how people experience our service, both in our live setting and on our stream.

  • Wide Shot (WS): Use the wide shot to give a sense of the environment. This shot is also used to give a full reference of the LED wall. For example, if a point or support image is on the wall, doing a wide shot gives our stream audience a full picture.
  • Medium Shot (MS): The medium shot is our bread-and-butter. It helps the viewer to connect with the subjects on stage. We favor the lead singer, soloist or speaker. The top of each verse and chorus leads with the soloist and then moves to incorporate other subjects.
  • Close Up Shot (CU): A close up of subjects face, adds emotion. It should be used to capture moments of joy, worship, thoughtfulness, etc. The CU is also used on instrumental solos. Be cautious with the CU. If a subject moves quickly, they could move out of your shot.
  • Plan secondary subjects in your shot and ensure that they do not get cut off or move out of the composition.
  • Avoid partial shots of the backstage area and try to get the LED wall fully into your frame.

SKILL 2: EXPOSURE
Controlling the light coming into the camera.

What is exposure?
Exposure is the amount of light coming into the camera and hitting the sensor. It is impacted by many factors such as shutter speed and the lighting on the stage. But for our purposes we will focus on the IRIS as our method for controlling exposure.

What is the difference between the Iris and the Aperture?
The Iris is a mechanism with an adjustable opening. That opening (hole) is called the Aperture. The mechanism is called the Iris. An open (wide) Iris results in more light (exposure) and a smaller Iris results in less light.

Aperture Small.jpg

Smaller Aperture

Less Light = Wider Depth of Field

Aperture Wide.jpg

Larger Aperture

More Light = Smaller Depth of Field

Controlling the Iris.
The cameras on tripods use the VariZoom to control the iris. Handheld cameras use the iris ring which is located on the lens of the camera. Adjust the iris as needed to get the proper exposure. Note that this will change with the elements in the service as the lighting changes. Also, the intensity of the LED will require you to adjust the iris.

Evaluating Exposure.
When looking at your exposure, study the subject and adjust the exposure to favor the subject and not the background.
HANDHELD (Lens Ring)
If the subject is too dark, adjust the Iris ring to the Left.
If the subject is too bright, adjust the Iris ring to the Right.
TRIPOD (VariZoom)
If the subject is too dark, adjust the Iris dial to the Right.
If the subject it too bright, adjust the Iris dial to the Left.

SKILL 3: FOCUS
Capturing a sharp image of your subject.

Manual Focus.
Proper focus is absolutely critical. We always use manual focus because of our live-action setting. It is your goal to always have the subject in focus.

One Push AF.
If you press the Push Auto button in manual focus mode, the camera performs high-speed focusing until the image is focused. The focus setting returns to manual focus mode once the image is focused.

Controlling the Focus.
The cameras on tripods use the VariZoom to control the focus. Handheld cameras use the focus ring which is located on the lense of the camera. Adjust the focus as needed to get the proper sharpness.

SKILL 4: DEPTH OF FIELD
Creating the Bokeh Effect and controlling the Moiré Effect.

Depth of Field.
Depth of Field (DOF) is the range in which your subject appears acceptably sharp in an image. You can think of it as a range of focus. The middle of the DOF would be the point where focus is the sharpest. If you have a shallow DOF, your subject could go out of focus if they move too much. If you have a deep DOF, your subject has more freedom but your background will be sharper. Generally, our goal is a shallow DOF to create Bokeh and to help diminish distortions from the LED Wall.

The Bokeh Effect (Boh-kay).
The Bokeh Effect makes video visually appealing by focusing our attention on the subject of the image and blurring the background. Bokeh has been defined as "the way the lens renders out-of-focus points of light". The word comes from the Japanese language, and literally translates as “blur”. It is desirable for it's warmth but it also helps to diminish the Moiré Effect. For our purposes, we achieve Bokeh using Depth of Field (DOF).

The Moiré Effect (Mwar-ay).
Moiré is a problem in video production where repeating, fine-detailed patterns create visual distortion. For example, a striped shirt can cause distortion. A much larger issue is the LED Wall. It can create significant distortion for our cameras.

The Edge Focus Technique.
One way to combat moiré is the Edge Focus Technique. You place your subject at the back edge of the DOF which makes the background (LED Wall) more blurry. Therefore, the subject is just in focus and the background has maximum blurriness. To execute this technique, adjust the focus so the subject is out of focus, then bring the subject just into focus.

  • VariZoom: Roll the focus nob toward you until the subject is just in focus.
  • Lens Ring: Roll the focus ring to your right (Clockwise) until the subject is just in focus.
Edge Focus.jpg

Ways to achieve a shorter DOF. (Shallow)
Get closer to the subject.
Use a longer focal length.
Use a larger aperture.

Ways to achieve a wider DOF. (Deep)
Get further away from the subject.
Use a shorter focal length.
Use a smaller aperture.

Here is a great video tutorial to help you understand Depth of Field (DOF).

SKILL 5: MOVEMENT
Using movement to enhance your shots.

    Zooming.
    When you zoom with the camera, the focal length of the lens is changing. Be aware that your DOF changes as you zoom. When Zooming In (Push), the DOF becomes shallower. When Zooming Out (Pulling), the DOF become wider. A common mistake is to zoom too quickly. Practice zooming at a gentle pace.

    Panning.
    Panning is moving the camera lens horizontally. Look to your left, then look to your right — that's panning.

    Tilting.
    Tilting is moving the camera’s lens up or down while keeping its horizontal axis constant. Nod your head up and down – this is tilting. Tilting is used when you want to show two things, though not necessarily at the same time.

    Steady Eddie.
    One of your goals is to be reliably steady and focused. Here are some suggestion for maintaining a steady shot.

    • Stay free from distractions.

    Off screen movements.
    When your shot is not on screen, still maintain steady movements between your compositions. Assume that your shot is always live.

    Putting your skills together.
    In summary, when you are composing a shot, you need to consider each of the following goals:

    • Great COMPOSITION with good headroom and look room.
    • Proper EXPOSURE using the iris.
    • The subject is FOCUSED and the background is blurred.
    • Eliminate the MOIRE EFFECT using DOF and EDGE FOCUS.
    • Consider your MOVEMENT, using steady stills and purposeful moves.

    VIDEO DIRECTION
    Understanding the Video Directors coaching.

    The Video Director (VD).
    The Video Director is located in our studio where they switch four cameras and screen graphics. It is their responsibility to lead you when you serve. They will assign you to a camera, inform you of special requests and coach you through the services. You will hear them over the headset. Here is a description of the language they will use. From time-to-time, you may also hear the Service Producer over the headset if they have requests of the video team. Please speak with the VD directly if you have any questions.

    Camera locations.
    Camera 1: Back of the room on a riser on a tripod. Wide shot. Main speaker shot.
    Camera 2: Located audience left (West). May be handheld or on a tripod.
    Camera 3: Located audience right (East). May be handheld or on a tripod.
    Camera 4: Roving. This camera location changes from week-to-week.

    Cues.
    Our goal is to keep the cues simple and precise.

    • Stand By: The VD wants you to prepare for a shot. (Example: Stand By 1)
    • Ready: The VD is going to take your shot immediately. (Example: Ready 1)
    • Go: Your shot is live! This is the most important cue to follow. (Example: Go 1)
    • Pan: Move your camera horizontally. (Example: 1 Pan Right, 1 Pan Left)
    • Tilt: Move your camera vertically up or down. (Example: 1 Tilt Up, 1 Tilt Down)
    • Zoom In (Push): Zoom in toward your subject. (Example: 1 Zoom In)
    • Zoom Out (Pull): Zoom out away from your subject. (Example: 1 Zoom Out)
    • Wide: Go to a wide shot. (Example: 1 Go Wide)
    • Medium: Go to a medium shot. (Example: 1 Medium)
    • Close Up (CU): Go to a close up shot. (Example: 1 CU on Guitar)
    • Over The Head: Zoom In while tilting up. Go up over the subjects head.
    • Quick Shots: The VD wants everyone to have a good shot and they will not call cameras or they may just call numbers. This will happen very quickly. (Example: 1-4-2)
    • Live: You are live. The VD may say this if you are unsteady or they think you are not aware that you are live. (Example: 1 is Live)
    • Iris: Open or close the iris to adjust the exposure. (Example: 1 Open Iris)
    • Focus: Your are out of focus. Adjust your focus. (Example: Focus 1)
    • Headroom: You need more or less headroom. (Example: Less Headroom 1)
    • Room: You need more looking room. (Example: 1 More Room)
    • Moiré: You have a moiré issue. Adjust focus, subject, focal length. (Example: 1 Moiré Issue)
    • Steady: Hold still, you are moving too much. Or, prepare to hold steady. (Example: Steady 1)

    CONGRATULATIONS
    You did it! Give yourself a pat on the back.

    It's time to rock it.
    You have completed this training guide, set up your Planning Center account and practiced your skills. Now it's time to use your talents to make a difference in our services at Daybreak! Way to go. Please take a moment to let us know that you are ready to serve by completing the form below.

    Personal next steps.
    Here are some personal "next steps" to consider on your journey at Daybreak.

    Personal Next Steps
    Select as many as you like